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Whoever incites a male under twenty-one Gregorian years of age or a female irrespective of age to leave the United Arab Republic, facilitates this for them, employs them or accompanies them abroad for the purpose of working in debauchery or prostitution and whomsoever knowingly assists in this is to be sentenced to prison for a period not less than one egyptian escorts and not exceeding five years and a fine between LE and LE in the Egyptian administration and between and Lira in the Syrian administration.
The maximum term of imprisonment is seven years if the crime is perpetrated against two or more persons or if it is committed by one of the means indicated in the first paragraph of article 2 besides the decreed fine. The following are sentenced to prison for a period not less than six months and not exceeding three years:. Whoever opens or manages premises for the purpose of debauchery or prostitution or cooperates in any way whatsoever in their management, is to be punished by imprisonment for a period not less than one year and not exceeding three years and a fine not less than LE and not exceeding LE in the Egyptian administration and not less than Lira and not exceeding Lira in the Syrian administration.
Closure of the premises and confiscation of goods and furnishings found therein is directed. If the one committing the crime is related to the one carrying egyptian escorts debauchery or prostitution, is charged with his upbringing or has authority over him, the prison sentence is for not less than two years and not exceeding four years besides the decreed fine. Punishment by imprisonment for a period not less than three months and not exceeding three years and a fine not less than 25 LE and not exceeding LE in the Egyptian administration and not less than Lira and not exceeding Lira in the Syrian administration or one of these two punishments applies in the following cases:.
Upon the apprehension of a person in the last category, it is permitted to send him for a medical examination. If it is discovered that he is carrying an infectious venereal disease, it is permitted to detain him in a therapeutic institute until his cure is completed. It is permitted to determine that the convicted person be placed, upon completion of his sentence, in a special reformatory until the administrative agency orders his release. This judgment is obligatory in cases of recidivism, and the period spent in the reformatory is not allowed to be more than three years.
Anyone who profits from or manages public premises or a public nightclub or other premises open to the public and employs persons who are engaged in debauchery or prostitution with the intention of facilitating this for them or with the intention of taking advantage of them to promote his premises is to be punished with a prison term not exceeding two years and a fine not exceeding LE in the Egyptian administration and Lira in the Syrian administration.
The punishment is imprisonment for a term not less than two years and not exceeding four years and a fine from LE to LE in the Egyptian administration and Lira to Lira in the Syrian administration if the perpetrator falls into the category of persons mentioned in the last paragraph of article 8. The closure of the premises for a period not exceeding three months or permanently in the case of a repeat offence is imposed. Any person who habitually works or resides in premises used for debauchery or prostitution and is aware of this is to be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year.
Whoever publicizes by any form of publicity an invitation which includes inducement to debauchery or prostitution, or draws attention to this, is to be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years and a fine not exceeding LE in the Egyptian administration and Lira in the Syrian administration, or one of the two punishments. As a consequence of a egyptian escorts of guilty in one of the crimes stipulated in this law, the convicted person may be placed under observation by the police for a period equivalent to the length of the sentence.
This is without infringement of the special laws egyptian escorts homelessness. Prostitution has an immemorial history in Egypt. Pre-colonial rulers regulated it primarily through taxation.
At the end of the nineteenth century, Khedive Tawfiq, the hereditary ruler, instituted state regulation of the sex work industry—for health reasons. This system remained in force until Agitation against the brothel system employed moral terms, but was rooted in the political resistance to colonialism. The use egyptian escorts brothels by British troops, and the privileged status enjoyed by foreign prostitutes over Egyptians, contributed to prostitution's association with political subjugation.
Inwith Egypt under martial law, a military decree ended the legal status of prostitution and abolished all brothels. Egyptian governments, threatened by both nationalists and the Muslim Brotherhood, prioritized abolition. When martial law ended a year later, the executive pressed legislators to pass a permanent ban egyptian escorts sex work. The persist, and still punish: they display the difficulties, and the deformations, in containing moral and political outrage within legal language. In a special committee of the House of Representatives then the lower house of parliament began studying the draft of the first anti-prostitution law in Egypt.
The committee's report recommended introducing the term fujur [debauchery] as a criminalized conduct. Egyptian escorts distinction the committee introduced was obviously not grounded in the dictionary. Fujur was much broader, conveying immorality in general, with a sexual tinge but no inherent commercial implications. Human Rights Watch has found no such precedents. It launched a process by which not only the language but the reach of the bill expanded—and abandoned precision.
The state had, prior to the ban on prostitution, granted s to male as well as female sex workers to practice the profession. However, the law was brought forward under conditions not friendly to fine distinctions. With the country in turmoil, the state needed to vindicate both its religious rigor, against the burgeoning Muslim Brotherhood, and its nationalist credentials. Indeed, the lawmakers went beyond the goals of most anti-prostitution campaigners. Multiple motives probably drove including fujur and expanding these definitions. Practical issues likely played a role: lawmakers may have wished to make it easier for vice squad officers to arrest prostitutes even without witnessing money being exchanged.
However, the desire to make a sweeping moral statement was also clearly evident. Promulgated in as Law no. Legal commentaries reflect the increased sweep of the law. There is no way to reveal this unless the act consists of a physical deed that recurs: so that if this deed occurs only once, there is no crime of habituality. In principle this means that a man who has sex with another man only once or a woman who has sex for money only once cannot be convicted. Only the recurrence makes the act a crime. Few precedents exist for considering an act innocent if engaged in once, but criminal after multiple indulgences.
The last incident should similarly not be separated from the start of the investigation by more than three years. But practicing homosexuality with people without discrimination is another thing.
This kind of promiscuity is criminalized. As this report shows, such legal intricacies are disregarded. SinceEgypt has moved to entrap and punish gay men seeking to meet other men over the Internet. Whoever manufactures or possesses, for the purpose of trade, distribution, leasing, posting, or displaying, printed materials, manuscripts, advertisements, reliefs, engravings, manual or photographic representations, symbolic s or any other material or photographs violating public morals, shall be punished with imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years and a fine of not less than LE and not exceeding 10, LE, or either penalty.
The article is a basic tool of censorship in Egypt, mustered against political expression. Two other provisions are also sometimes tacked on in Egyptian escorts cases. Article bis of the Criminal Codestates:. Whoever is found on a public road or a traveled and frequented place inciting the passersby with als or words to commit indecency shall be punished with imprisonment for a period not exceeding one month.
If the felon recurs to committing this crime within one year of the first crime, the penalty shall become imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months and a fine not exceeding fifty pounds. A ruling of conviction shall necessitate placing the convict under police supervision for a period equal to that of the penalty.
Like fujur, the word generally suggests immorality in Arabic. Fisq egyptian escorts below this. Commentaries agree that fisq can be committed by creating a sexualized environment even if no sexual act happens—a fact ificant for Internet entrapment cases, in which men are arrested and convicted on the basis of their expression in posted advertisements or Internet chat or under the false allegation that they comported themselves lewdly on the street while waiting for an asationbut without any solid evidence of sexual relations.
Article has proven useful in a of cases involving Internet entrapments.
The standard arrest report in Internet entrapment cases describes the suspect's conduct in an invariable template:. We noticed … that the investigated person was frequenting the area; we watched him in a secret way; we observed that he was passing back and forth … trying to draw attention to himself through acts and movements that are similar to the moves of women in their walking.
He stood behind a young man and had a whispering conversation with him in a way that I could not hear, because we were standing too far away. I approached them, declared my identity, and the nature of my mission, and the Public Prosecution warrant I had obtained. The person stopped by the investigated person stated this man had talked to him about his desire to take him with him to practice vice but he rejected it, and was surprised by our presence. The person refused to declare his identity or employment in order to protect his reputation.
However, it offers justification for egyptian escorts solicitation arrest. Yet this use of article bis of the Criminal Code entails a legal error. Since article bis only merits a sentence of one month, Vice Squad officers must still obtain a warrant before arresting someone for this charge. Whoever commits in public a scandalous act against shame shall be punished with detention for a period not exceeding one year or a fine not exceeding three hundred pounds. The provision has remained unchanged since first appearing as article of the Criminal Code of Prosecutors have used it in at least one case against a defendant entrapped over the Internet.
The Court of Cassation has regularly ruled, however, that an act can be considered public under article even if others did not see it, as long as someone could have seen it. This elision of the boundary around privacy is particularly troubling in view of the emerging rigor of Internet surveillance in Egypt.
Egypt has a sophisticated jurisprudence defining public and private spheres. Such supervision, in Egypt, is more than mere probation: it is virtually an extension of the prison sentence. The supervision system, created by Law 99 ofgenerally requires the convict to spend every night in a police station. Freed from prison, the men must still sit in a cell egyptian escorts 6 p.
Before the completion of the sentence, it is desirable that the necessary steps be taken to ensure for the prisoner a gradual return to life in society. This aim may be achieved, depending on the case, by a pre-release regime organized in the same institution or in another appropriate institution, or by release on trial under some kind of supervision which must not be entrusted to the police but should be combined with effective social aid.
However, instead of a system egyptian escorts early release deed to reintegrate former prisoners into social existence, Egypt has established a system of prolonging sentences—devoid of any pretence of social aid, and placing the prisoner nightly under direct police control—that actively hampers any such reintegration. Law 98, also passed the same year, was a matching attempt at administering social outcasts by bureaucratic, extrajudicial means. Both were part of a mounting tendency toward regulative social cleansing, of which the law on prostitution six years later also formed a part.
II, pp. Later revisions hewed to the essential elements of the code; although the Constitution was amended under Anwar al-Sadat to state that Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation, criminal law has never been revised accordingly. This was consistent with the concerns of colonial rule, which tended to see prostitution less as a moral than a medical problem, a field for the growing European intertwining of social ordering, statistical tabulation, and public health.
France had decriminalized prostitution like sodomy during the Revolution; French science soon turned to studying the prostitute as an experiment in both political and medical control. These laws in turn became the pattern for regulation in Egypt under British rule. Human Rights Watch has been unable egyptian escorts locate any rulings prior to the banning of prostitution that adopted these definitions.Egyptian escorts
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Between Egyptian "national purity" and "local flexibility": prostitution in al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the first half of the 20th century